Terminal analysis and scope of use

A terminal is an electronic component used to connect power or electrical equipment, also known as a connector. It usually includes a socket and a plug, which can be inserted into the socket for electrical connection. Terminals are used in a wide range, covering many fields, such as electronics, automation, communications, aviation, automobiles, etc.

A terminal is an electronic component used to connect power or electrical equipment

In the electronics industry, terminals are often used to connect power, signal, and dash connections, such as power adapters, batteries, audio, video, data, etc. In the automation and machinery industry, terminals are often used to connect motors, sensors, switches, relays, and other equipment. In the field of communication, terminals are used to connect telephones, computers, routers, switches, and other equipment. In the aviation and automotive industries, terminals are widely used to connect equipment such as power supplies, signals, lights, and sirens.

In the electronics industry

There are many types and specifications of terminals, which are divided into plug-in terminals and screw-type terminals according to the connection method; they are divided into various types according to factors such as external dimensions, conductive materials, and current capacity, such as round terminals, square terminals, tubular terminals, board bottom terminals, etc. Terminals can play a good role in circuit design and manufacturing, improving the stability and reliability of the system.

There are many types and specifications of terminals

Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics is a company specializing in the production of connectors. Our products have excellent performance and can meet the needs of different industries. Welcome new and old customers to come to buy。

The contribution of Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co., Ltd. to the connector industry

Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co Ltd is a leading manufacturer of electronic connectors, wiring harnesses, and cable assemblies in China. The company has been serving the connector industry for more than a decade and has made significant contributions to the development of the industry.

Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co Ltd has developed a wide range of connectors, including board-to-board, wire-to-board, wire-to-wire, and FPC/FFC connectors.

The company also offers customized solutions to meet specific customer needs. The connectors developed by the company are widely used in various industries including automotive, consumer electronics, medical devices, lighting, and communication.

Lianhe Electronics

The company has invested heavily in research and development to continuously improve its products and processes. Its products meet international quality standards such as RoHS, REACH, and UL.

The company’s production facilities are equipped with advanced machinery, tools, and equipment to ensure efficient production and timely delivery of orders.

Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co Ltd also focuses on environmental protection and sustainability. The company has implemented various initiatives to reduce its carbon footprint, reduce waste, and conserve energy. It also advocates for responsible sourcing of materials and ethical business practices.

environmental protection and sustainability

Some of the major contributions of Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co., Ltd. to the automotive connector industry include:

High-performance connectors:

LHE brand connectors are designed to provide high-performance features that allow them to withstand harsh automotive environmental conditions. These connectors are made of high-quality materials which increases their durability and reliability.

Diversified product range:

LHE brand connectors provide a diverse range of products to meet the various needs of modern vehicles. This includes connectors for powertrain systems, body electronics, infotainment systems, and other critical automotive applications.

Customizable Solutions:

LHE brand connectors offer customizable solutions, allowing automakers to develop connectors that meet their specific requirements. This allows manufacturers to tailor the connector to their specific needs, increasing efficiency and saving costs.

Customizable Solutions

Continuous Innovation:

LHE brand connectors are continuously developed and improved to meet the changing needs of the automotive industry. This means providing manufacturers with cutting-edge solutions that allow them to stay ahead of the competition.

Overall, LHE brand connectors have made a significant impact on the automotive connector industry by providing high-quality, customizable, and innovative solutions that meet the needs of modern vehicles.


Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co Ltd’s contribution to the connector and auto connector industry is significant. Its innovative products, customization capabilities, and commitment to quality and sustainability have helped the company earn a reputation as a reliable and trusted partner in the industry.

Why is the terminal defective?

The terminal is a metal part set in the insulating material of the connector, and its function is to guide the wire to make an electrical connection with the electronic device. With the increasingly stringent requirements for industrial automation control precision, the number of terminals is increasing, but there are also some bad factors in the use of terminals.

During use, the mating terminals of the connector may have peeling, corrosion, scratches on the coating surface, flashes and cracks on the plastic shell, rough processing or deformation of the tight contact parts of the contacts, etc., resulting in poor appearance.

mating terminals

Poor terminal insulation

The function of the terminal insulator is to hold the contacts in the correct position and to insulate the contacts from each other and from the housing. Therefore, insulating parts must have excellent electrical properties, mechanical properties, and process-forming properties.

Especially with the widespread use of high-density and miniaturized terminals, the effective wall thickness of insulators is getting thinner and thinner. This puts forward stricter requirements on insulating materials, injection mold precision, and molding process.

Poor terminal insulation

Poor terminal fixation

Terminals need to be fixed in a specific position for a stable connection. If the installation is not perfect or the product plug-in life cycle is insufficient, it will lead to poor fixation, which will affect reliable contact, cause instantaneous power failure, or disintegrate the product in severe cases.

Disintegration refers to the unreliable structure of the terminal block in the plugged state due to materials, design, process, and other reasons, resulting in abnormal separation of plug and socket, pin and socket, which will cause serious consequences of interruption of power transmission and signal control of the control system.

Due to unreliable design, wrong material selection, improper selection of molding process, poor quality of heat treatment, mold, assembly, welding, and other processes, improper assembly, and other reasons. , causing poor fixation.

Poor terminal fixation

Poor contact with terminals

The metal conductor inside the terminal is the core part of the terminal, which transmits power and signals to other parts that come into contact with it. Therefore, the metal conductor inside the terminal must have good electrical conductivity.

If the design of the contact is unreasonable, the material is selected incorrectly, the size is not up to standard, or the plating is not properly processed, it will cause poor contact with the connector terminal.

Poor contact of terminals

Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co., Ltd. is a professional manufacturer engaged in connectors, automotive connectors, wiring harnesses, and other connectors. The main products are board-to-board connectors, wire-to-board connectors, wire-to-wire connectors, automotive connectors, etc.

The company has complete qualification certificates, a strong technical force, excellent processing equipment, perfect inspection equipment, and strong research and development capabilities.

It provides you with green and high-quality connectors and is your most loyal and reliable partner. If you are interested in products, please browse our website: https://www.lhecn.com/, and contact us for a quotation.

Four points for attention in the use of connectors

The connector is generally composed of a plug and a socket, where the plug is also called a free-end connector, and the socket is also called a fixed connector. The connection and disconnection of the circuit are realized by plugs, sockets, and plugs, so various plugs and sockets are connected.

The following are key considerations for using analytics:


When the power connector is terminated, it should be terminated and inspected in strict accordance with the corresponding termination specifications or requirements, and terminated according to the corresponding contact number.

The thickness of the insulation layer between the selected cables and wires should match the distance between the contacts, and the cable core should match the terminals of the contacts. , and cross-parallel processing is prohibited between contact crimping holes;

When soldering, electric soldering iron with corresponding power should be selected according to the diameter of the bare wire, and the soldering time of each contact should generally not exceed 5s. Be careful not to

let the flux penetrate into the insulator, so as not to cause a decrease in the insulation resistance of the product.


Check before insertion

1. The model, code, serial number, plug position and direction of the power connector shall meet the requirements of the design and process documents;

2. The tail cover is not loose, and the binding opening is not falling off; [h]3) The wiring harness or wires at the tail door are not bent, and the outer skin is not damaged;

3. The grounding wire of the shielding skin is not broken, and the soldering piece connected to the shell is not loose;

4. The power connector shell and butt joint should have no deformation, cracks, thread wear, loose fasteners or defects, and the coating should not peel off;

5. The locking device should be in good condition.

The locking device should be in good condition

Plug Operation

Before plugging and unplugging, confirm the code name of the plug and socket to be plugged, the “shape” of the interface, “the positioning keyway”, “the positioning color code”, “and lock” and check the “tightening nails and slots” and “positioning screws and screw holes” at the interface Whether it is corresponding and accurately positioned;

During pushing or screwing into the power connector, the mating faces of the plug and receptacle should be aligned parallel to each other. After the cable or wire has been straightened, the locking sleeve is gently pushed in or slowly threaded along the axis into place and locked.

If you find that the two mating surfaces are skewed, the positioning is inaccurate, the hand feels tighter than normal, or there is an abnormal feeling such as blocking, stop the operation, pull it out along the axis, and check the status. After troubleshooting, reinsert the catch. Allows plugging and unplugging with special aids.

When the tail cap of the plug or socket is tightened, the cable or wire coming out of the tail cap cannot be rotated.

Plug operation


When testing cables or electronic equipment, the probes should meet the requirements. It is strictly forbidden to use test leads or copper wires for direct testing, so as to prevent the jack of the power connector from being enlarged or the inner wall damaged, or the pins from being crooked;

Before the test cable and the power connector on the electronic equipment are plugged in and tested, the power connector (plug and socket) on the test cable should be checked first. , Dust pollution, broken wires, and broken wires of the shielding skin cannot be plugged in;

During the test, the plugging and unplugging operation of the power connector should generally be carried out after the power supply is disconnected for no less than 3 minutes, and live plugging and unplugging are prohibited;


Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co., Ltd. is committed to becoming an excellent automotive connector and home appliance connector supply chain system solution provider. We focus on the field of connectors, including automobiles, household appliances, smart homes, security, etc. Welcome new and old customers to come to buy.

What is a header connector?

Header connectors are widely used in electrical connections; connectors usually include needle seats. Since the connectors involve power connections, in some humid or harsh environments, the needle seats are usually fitted with some sealing devices for sealing. Prevent water from leaking in and avoid safety issues such as short circuits.

The Header connector is composed of two parts, the base, and the terminal, and is a kind of plug-in conduction connection for electronic devices to achieve the function of power supply or signal transmission.

It can be said that as long as there is a place where the electronic product circuit passes, there will be a needle connector, which has brought progress and innovation to the progress of the electronic industry. This article mainly introduces the basic situation of the needle socket connector.

header connector

Due to the advantages of strong stability, high-temperature resistance, durability, waterproofing, and convenient use, needle-seat connectors have a very high market acceptance.

With the continuous progress of the electronic technology industry and the continuous improvement of living standards, the consumption of electronic products has been driven With the rapid development of the market, Header connectors are widely used in automotive electronics, medical equipment, avionics, camera equipment, PCB electronics, drones, audio equipment, testing equipment, and other industries.

divided into vertical stickers

Header connectors are divided into vertical stickers, horizontal stickers, vertical plugs, and horizontal plugs in terms of plug-in methods. There are many types of connector spacing options, such as 1.0 pitch, 1.25 pitch, 1.5 pitch, 2.0 pitch, 2.5 pitch spacing, 3.96 spacing, 4.2 spacing, 5.08 spacing, etc. Different word plug-in methods and spacing can be selected for design and development to meet customer needs.

When choosing a needle connector manufacturer to cooperate with, try to find a qualified and regular manufacturer, because the manufacturer’s experience and R&D technical strength guarantee product quality and stability, not only can give professional advice and support before sales but also in The after-sales service of the product pays more attention to the user experience, giving consumers a stronger sense of security.

excellent equipment

Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co., Ltd. is a qualified, professional, and regular manufacturer. We have excellent equipment, a complete production line, and excellent employees. Welcome new and old customers to come and buy.

What are the application characteristics of automotive connectors?

From the purpose of using the car connector, in order to ensure that the car runs better, we can divide the reliability of the connector into the sealing of the connector in use, the performance of the car’s spark resistance during driving, and in the car’s During driving, the connector can also show shielding performance and temperature control performance.

Generally, when discussing the sealing of automotive connectors, it is not only the sealing performance of water in the car.

In this field, the current internationally popular management standard is IP67, and this standard is also a relatively high level in the automotive sealing industry. Although the requirements for waterproofing are different in different parts of the car, many car manufacturers will choose IP67 to ensure the sealing performance of their car’s connectors.

In the running of a car, the power supply is a very important energy source, not only related to the normal operation of the engine but also often involves the use of the power supply when people are driving.

Therefore, in the power system of the car, the car connector has different divisions, between the male connector and the device, between the male connector and the cable, between the male connector and the female connector, and the female connector. There are certain sealing measures between the terminal connector and the cable that can be implemented.

In realizing the sealing performance of the automobile connector, the sealing ring is a commonly used tool. This tool can not only achieve the effect of fixing between different hole positions but also achieve the effect of sealing.

It can not only ensure the stable operation of the automotive equipment but also ensure the waterproof performance of the automotive equipment during work. Most of the sealing rings are made of silicone rubber, which is made after a certain chemical change between liquid silicon and solid silicon.

Now that cars are in use, electronic circuit technology is an important aspect of the automotive industry, not only in the driver’s entertainment but also in the control system of the car when the driver is driving.

Electronic circuit technology plays an important role in the stable work of the car. In order to ensure that electronic circuit technology can work stably, people now apply a lot of shielding technologies in the production of automobiles.

These shielding technologies not only play a protective role in the electronic circuit of the car but also have the ability to resist interference and radiation in the components of the car. In addition, they can also protect the stable operation of the car connector. These shielding technologies in automobiles can be divided into two types: inner shielding and outer shielding.

When using outer shielding to protect automotive connectors, two identical shielding shells are usually used to assemble together to form a shielding layer, and the length of the shielding layer can cover the entire length of the connector, and the shielding shell should also ensure that there are sufficient locking plate structures to ensure the reliable installation of the shielding layer.

In addition, the shielding material used must not only be treated by electroplating but also be treated to prevent chemical corrosion.

Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co., Ltd. is a manufacturer specializing in connectors, board-to-board connectors, wire-to-board connectors, automotive connectors, and other connectors. The main products are automotive connectors, new energy connectors, and home appliance connections. device etc.

The company has complete qualification certificates, a strong technical force, excellent processing equipment, perfect inspection equipment, and strong research and development capabilities to provide you with green and high-quality connectors.


Introduction to the technical parameters of the connector

Electronic connectors (hereinafter referred to as connectors) can also be called plug sockets, which are widely used in various electrical circuits and play the role of connecting or disconnecting circuits.

There are many types of connectors and a wide range of applications. But if you ask what are the main technical parameters of the connector, it is estimated that few people can answer, so we also need to know the main technical parameters of the connector itself.

Security parameters

Insulation resistance refers to the resistance value that occurs when a voltage is applied to the insulating part of the connector to cause leakage current in or on the surface of the insulating part. It is mainly affected by factors such as insulating materials, temperature, humidity, and fouling.

The insulation resistance value provided on the connector sample is generally the index value under standard atmospheric conditions. Under certain environmental conditions, the insulation resistance value will drop to varying degrees. In addition, attention should be paid to the test voltage value of insulation resistance.

Depending on the insulation resistance (MΩ) = voltage (V)/leakage current (μA) applied to the insulator, different voltages will have different results. In the test of the connector, the applied voltage generally has three levels 10V, 100V, and 500V.

security parameters

Withstand voltage

The withstand voltage is the critical voltage that can withstand higher than the rated voltage within a specified time between the mutually insulated parts of the contact pair or between the insulated part and the ground without breakdown.

It is mainly affected by contact pair spacing and creepage distance and geometry, insulator material and ambient temperature and humidity, and atmospheric pressure.


Any connector is inseparable from the current when it is working, and there is a risk of fire. Therefore, the connector is not only required to be able to prevent ignition but also required to be able to self-extinguish in a short time once it is ignited and caught fire.

When selecting, pay attention to the selection of electrical connectors with flame-retardant and self-extinguishing insulating materials.


Mechanical parameters

Single leg separation force and total separation force

The contact pressure in the connector is an important indicator, which directly affects the size of the contact resistance and the wear of the contact pair. In most structures, it is quite difficult to directly measure the contact pressure. Therefore, the contact pressure is often indirectly measured by the single-leg separation force.

For circular pinhole contact pairs, standard pins with specified weights are usually used to test the ability of female contacts to hold weights. Generally, the diameter of the standard pins is -5μm, which is the lower limit of the diameter of male contacts. The total separation force is generally twice the sum of the upper-line separation forces of the individual feet.

When the total separation force exceeds 50N, it is quite difficult to use manual insertion and extraction. Of course, for some test equipment or occasions with special requirements, zero insertion force connectors, automatic fall-off connectors, etc. can be selected.

Environmental Parameters

Environmental parameters mainly include ambient temperature, humidity, sudden temperature changes, atmospheric pressure, and corrosive environment. The environment in which the connector is used, stored, and transported has a significant impact on its performance, so the corresponding connector must be selected according to the actual environmental conditions.

Ambient temperature

The metal material and insulating material of the connector determine the working environment temperature of the connector. The high temperature will destroy the insulating material, causing insulation resistance and voltage resistance to decrease; for metals, high temperature can cause the contact pair to lose elasticity, accelerate oxidation and cause coating deterioration. The usual ambient temperature is -55~100°C, which may be higher on special occasions.

ambient temperature


The relative humidity is greater than 80%, which is the main cause of electrical breakdown. The humid environment causes the absorption and diffusion of water vapor on the surface of the insulator, which can easily reduce the insulation resistance to below the MΩ level.

Long-term exposure to high-humidity environments will cause physical deformation, decomposition, and release of products, resulting in breathing effects, electrolysis, and corrosion. and crack.

Especially for the connectors outside the equipment, it is often necessary to consider the environmental conditions of humidity, water seepage, and pollution. In this case, a sealed connector should be selected. For watertight and dust-tight connectors, the shell protection level of GB4208 is generally used to indicate.

Rapid Temperature Change

The sudden change of humidity test is to simulate the actual use of the connector equipment in a cold environment to a warm environment or to simulate the rapid change of the ambient temperature of a space vehicle or a probe. Rapid temperature changes may crack or delaminate the insulating material.

Atmospheric Pressure

At high altitudes where the air is thin, the plastic emits a gas that pollutes the contact pairs, increases the tendency of corona generation, reduces the withstand voltage performance, and causes short circuit failures in the circuit. When the high altitude reaches a certain value, the performance of the plastic becomes worse. Therefore, when using unsealed connectors at high altitudes, derating must be used.

Corrosive environment

Corrosive Environment

According to the different corrosive environments of the connector, choose the connector with the corresponding metal, plastic, and plating structure, such as the connector used in the salt spray environment, if there is no anti-corrosion metal surface, the performance will deteriorate rapidly.

In an environment containing considerable concentrations of SO2, it is not suitable to use connectors with silver-plated contact pairs. Mold is also a significant problem in hot flash areas.

I hope this article can help customers better understand connectors. For practitioners in the connector industry, some general parameters of connectors should be very familiar. Improving the reliability of the connector is firstly the responsibility of the manufacturer. Only through the joint efforts of both the manufacturer and the user can the function of the connector be maximized.

Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co., Ltd. is a professional manufacturer of electronic connectors, automotive connectors, and other products

Welcome new and old customers to come to buy.

Future trends of electronic connector technology

Connectors, as a key component of current or signal connection, are also an important part of industrial systems.

With the rapid development of personal mobile terminals, household smart appliances, the information and communication industry, the new transportation energy industry, aerospace technology, artificial intelligence, medical electronic equipment, and other fields, more and more requirements are put forward for connectors in terms of function, appearance, performance and use environment. high demands.

miniaturization integration

Development trend of miniaturization integration

In order to meet the requirements of portable, digital, and multi-functional electronic machines, as well as the automation of production and assembly, electronic connectors must be adjusted in the product structure. The products are mainly developed in the direction of small size, low height, narrow pitch, multi-function, long life, surface mount, etc.

Miniaturization means that the distance between the centers of electronic connectors (connectors) is smaller, and high density means the realization of a large number of cores.

The miniaturization of consumer electronics requires the combination of miniaturization, thinning, and high performance of components, which also promotes the development of connector products in the direction of miniaturization and small spacing.

The miniaturization of components requires higher technology. All of these require a strong industrial mold-based foundation to effectively support.

Intelligent development trend

Intelligent development trend

Today is a world of rapid information development. No matter what kind of information or technology it is for, people’s requirements are getting higher and higher.

From the rapid development of information and communication data, wireless interconnection has come to each of us, from the application of smartphones, smart wearables, drones, unmanned driving, VR reality, intelligent robots, and other technologies, the addition of IC chips and The intelligent development of electronic connectors that control circuits is an inevitable trend, because it will enable electronic connectors to more intelligently grasp the use of electronic equipment, and improve the performance of the connector itself to achieve intelligent wireless bridging.

High performance development trend

High-performance development trend

High-speed transmission means that modern computers, information technology, and networking technology require the time scale rate of signal transmission to reach the megahertz frequency band, and the pulse time to reach sub-milliseconds, so high-speed transmission electronic connectors (connectors) are required.

The high frequency is to adapt to the development of millimeter wave technology, and the radio frequency coaxial electronic connectors (connectors) have entered the millimeter wave working frequency band.

High current is also an important development direction of many electronic connectors (connectors). Although short, light, energy-saving and low-consumption are the direction of efforts of consumer electronics products, the following two aspects determine that in quite a few applications, the power supply evolves in the direction of high current.

Let us take the common computer CPU as an example to illustrate the reason:

1. The improvement of computer performance requires an increase in CPU operation speed and an increase in the number of transistors required, so power consumption increases. When the voltage remains unchanged, the current rises in the same proportion;

2, With the advancement of semiconductor technology, the operating voltage of transistors Gradual reduction is conducive to reducing power consumption, but its physical characteristics determine that the reduction ratio of power consumption is not as good as that of voltage. Therefore, the increase in current is also an important indicator to test the high-performance development of electronic connectors.

Anti-signal interference and shielding

Anti-signal interference and shielding, when the data transmission speed increases, the influence of capacitance and impedance becomes more and more obvious. A signal on one terminal can crosstalk to an adjacent terminal and affect its signal integrity.

In addition, capacitance to ground reduces the impedance of high-speed signals, attenuating the signal. In the new connector design, each signal transmission terminal is separated from the other.

Differential pairs work well for this purpose because each differential pair has a ground pin on one side to reduce crosstalk. Usually, the first layer is the pinned area to separate adjacent ground terminals.

The next level is the ground shield fitted between the rows. Top-level applications would include a metal ground structure surrounding each signal terminal. Such metal shielding achieves the best combination of data transmission speed and signal integrity.

extreme environments

Resistant to extreme environments, reliability, and environmental protection. In the modern high-tech industry, there are many connectors used under extreme environmental conditions. Electronic connectors can be used effectively and normally under ultra-high temperatures, low temperatures, vibration, hot and humid environments, and corrosive environments.

There are higher requirements in terms of selection, structural design, and processing technology. New high-temperature-resistant materials, new electroplating and coating processes, and alloy materials with higher elasticity make future connectors more adaptable to harsh environments.

The appearance is beautiful and fashionable, and more attention is paid to the development trend of humanization

With the continuous development and progress of multimedia and other technologies, the connector is also adapting to the constant changes of its main body. With the development of science and technology, a good connector should not only have a more beautiful and fashionable appearance, but also a more durable material and more convenient operation.

More importantly, the connection design of its core parts should be More and more refined and precise. In this way, it will not appear that the card slot of the general data connector will become loose after a long time of use. In severe cases, the data transmission part of the connector will be completely paralyzed, which will greatly damage the customer’s confidence in the purchase of the main product.

beautiful and fashionable

Nowadays, the replacement speed of electronic products and equipment is very fast, which makes the future development trend of the connector industry to be miniaturized, integrated, intelligent, high-performance, and user-friendly. Only in this way can we adapt to the development of the times. Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co., Ltd. is a company specializing in the production of connectors. Welcome new and old customers to come and buy.

What are the performance tests of automotive connectors

Every automotive connector requires on-site performance testing when in use! So, what can be tested? Zhejiang Lianhe Electronic Connector Manufacturer will give you a brief introduction today, hoping to help you!

Waterproof connector sealing test: It is required to test the sealing of the connector under vacuum or positive pressure. Generally, it is necessary to seal the product with a clip under a positive or negative pressure of 10kpa to 50kpa, and then conduct an air tightness test. The leak rate of the product under test shall not exceed 1cc/min and if higher shall not exceed 0.5cc/min. for qualified products

Waterproof connector sealing test

Pressure test of waterproof connector: pressure test is divided into negative pressure test and positive pressure test. The test requires the selection of a precise proportional control valve group, and the product is evacuated from the initial pressure of 0 according to a certain evacuation rate.

The evacuation time and the proportion of vacuum obtained can be adjusted. For example, set the vacuum to -50kpa and the pumping speed to 10kpa/min. The difficulty of this test is that the air tightness tester or leak detector is required to be able to set the initial pressure for extracting the negative pressure value, such as starting from 0.

Of course, it can also be required to start from -10kpa, and the extraction rate should also be acceptable. set and can be changed. Everyone knows that the airtight tester or air tightness tester is equipped with a manual or electronic pressure regulating valve, which can only be adjusted according to the set pressure.

The initial pressure starts from 0, and the ability to pump the vacuum depends on the degree of vacuum. Generate a vacuum source (vacuum generator or vacuum pump). After the vacuum source passes through the pressure regulating valve, the speed of vacuuming is fixed, that is, it can only be pumped from 0 pressure to the fixed pressure set by the pressure regulating valve in an instant, and the pumping pressure has no ability to control and change with time.

The principle of the positive pressure withstands test is similar to that of the negative pressure withstands the test, that is, the initial pressure of the positive pressure is set to any pressure, such as 0 pressure or 10kpa, and the slope of the pressure rise, that is, the slope can be set, such as 10kpa/min: test The required pressure rise is proportional to time and adjustable.

burst test

Waterproof connector rupture test (burst test): divided into negative pressure rupture test or positive pressure rupture test. It is required that the product should burst instantly when it is evacuated or pressurized to a certain pressure range, and the burst pressure should be recorded.

The difficulty of the test is: the air tightness tester needs to extract negative pressure to meet the requirements of the second test, the pressurization rate can be adjusted, and the pressurized blasting must be completed within the set range and cannot exceed this range. That is, blasting below this range or above this range does not meet the product test requirements, and the test pressure of this blasting point needs to be recorded.

In actual testing, this measurement requires a vandal-proof installation. The commonly used anti-riot device is to place the test piece in a pressure-resistant stainless steel cylinder. The test piece must be sealed, and a high-pressure pressure relief valve must be installed on the stainless steel cylinder with the outer cover to ensure safety. When blasting, the fragments of waterproof joints are scattered in the pressure-resistant stainless steel cylinder, which will not cause harm to personnel.

actual testing

From the above analysis, it can be seen that the air tightness tester generally needs to design 3 different devices to complete, while the seal leak test needs to be completed with a formed leak detector and fixture system.

The pressure test needs to increase the proportional control valve group to accurately set the proportional relationship between the pressure value and time. The burst test requires the product to burst within a certain range and record the burst value at the same time.

If the three systems are integrated together, it is a relatively complex system engineering. Of course, these three tests often need to be completed comprehensively. The test requires that the initial pressure value can be set arbitrarily, and the pressure increase and deceleration rate can be adjusted. Record the burst pressure.

If the pressure rises or falls to a certain value, conduct a seal leak test without bursting, and record the leak rate of the seal test or the pressure change per unit of time. After the test, the test results need to be saved for quality traceability.

It is required that all test data can be traced and stored and uploaded in accordance with the format required by the test to facilitate quality analysis and quality control.

For the seal leak detection industry, these European and American automobile companies have specific requirements for leak testing: before the test, the barcode of the workpiece needs to be scanned and recorded, and after the test is completed, the barcode must correspond to the specific test results such as date and time.

manufacturer specializing

Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co., Ltd. is a manufacturer specializing in connectors, connecting wires, electronic wiring harnesses, and other connectors for more than 20 years. Board-to-board connectors, wire-to-wire connectors, etc. The company has complete qualification certificates, a strong technical force, excellent processing equipment, perfect inspection equipment, and strong research and development capabilities. It provides you with green and high-quality connectors and is your most loyal and reliable partner.

Electronic connectors are explained in detail from the definition of function and structure!

From a functional definition, an electronic connector is a direct connection between two subsystems in an electronic system that provides a separable connection without unacceptable impact on the performance of the electronic connection system.

Separability is the reason why we use connectors to facilitate maintenance and upgrades of subsystems or parts of a system. At the same time, this connection must not have any unacceptable impact on the performance of the system. The requirements for separable and unacceptable limits depend on the specific application requirements of the connector.

electronic connector

The engineers of Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics will give you an analysis from the structural definition. The connector has four structural elements, which are: 1. The contact interface between the terminals (between); Reed; Fourth, the shell of the connector.

Contact interface between terminals

The contact interface between the terminals determines the resistance of the terminals, the life of the connector, and the occurrence of failure.

The contact interface between terminals has the following two forms:

1. Separable contact: The connection is formed each time the connector is inserted.

2. Permanent contact: the point where the connector is fixed on the subsystem, and these points are regarded as permanent connections.

Surface Treatment of Terminals

Surface Treatment of Terminals

The surface treatment of the terminal has two main functions, which are to protect the base material of the terminal reed from rust and to optimize the contact interface between the terminals.

The surface treatment of the terminal is mainly divided into two categories:

1. Precious metal surface treatment is what we call precious metals, that is, inert metals, mainly including gold (Au), palladium (Pd) and their alloys.

2. Non-precious metal surface treatment, tin is the most commonly used non-precious metal surface treatment, because its surface oxide layer is easily destroyed during the connector insertion process.

terminal reed

Terminal reed

The terminal spring serves the following three functions:

1. To transmit electricity or signals.

2. Provide terminal positive force to establish and maintain a separable terminal contact interface.

3. Provides connection points for permanent terminal contact interfaces.



The connector housing provides the following four functions:

1. Electrical insulation between terminals.

2. The geometric position of the fixed terminal is conducive to insertion and dimensional stability.

3. Provide mechanical protection and support for the terminals.

4. Isolate the terminals from the application environment and reduce the susceptibility to corrosion.

The above is a detailed explanation of the definition of electronic connectors in terms of function and structure. Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co., Ltd. specializes in the production of electronic connectors. Welcome new and old customers to come and buy

Analysis of common quality problems in the gold-plated layer of connectors and connectors!

When connector connectors are manufactured, many products require different levels of electroplating processes, because some customized connector products often have higher electrical performance requirements for contact connections, so manufacturers are giving connectors It is especially important when the connector products use the gold plating process.common quality problems

Today’s connector products are becoming more and more miniaturized. Except for some connector products with materials that use selective gold plating, the gold plating in the holes of a large number of pinhole parts still uses barrel plating and gold plating. Vibration plating is performed.

However, the problem of gold plating quality in pinhole parts is becoming more and more prominent, and customers have higher and higher quality requirements for the gold plating layer of connector products. Some customers even have very picky requirements for the appearance and quality of the gold plating layer of products.

gold plating layer of products

In order to ensure that the quality of the gold-plated layer of connectors and connectors can meet the needs of customers, Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics, a manufacturer of connectors and connectors, has made the following answers to common quality problems encountered in the technical key to improving the quality of gold-plated products.

For gold-plated products Layer quality problems, the color of the gold-plated layer of the connector is inconsistent with the color of the normal gold layer, or the color of the gold layer of different parts in the same supporting product is different, the reason for this problem is probably the following reasons:

The influence of impurities in gold-plated raw materials

When the gold plating process of connector contacts is in progress, the impurities brought in by the chemical materials added to the plating solution will soon affect the color and brightness of the gold layer after exceeding the use standard of the gold plating solution. If it is affected by organic impurities, the gold layer will appear.

The phenomenon of darkening and blooming, or the interference of metal impurities will cause the effective range of current density to narrow, and it will show that the low end of the current density is not bright or the high end is not bright and the low end is not plated.

Gold plating current density is too high

Gold plating current density is too high

If the calculation of the total area of ​​the plating tank parts in the gold plating process of the connector is wrong, the value will be larger than the actual surface area, and the gold plating current will be too large, or the amplitude of the vibration electroplating gold plating will be too small, so that part of the plating tank The crystallization of the gold plating layer of the piece is rough, and the redness of the gold layer will be visually observed.

Aging of gold plating solution

When gold-plated contact connectors are manufactured, because some gold-plating solutions are used for too long, impurities in the plating solution will accumulate excessively, which will inevitably cause abnormal gold layer color of gold-plated products.

Aging of gold plating solution

The alloy content in the hard gold coating changes

Because of the need of some gold-plating processes, in order to improve the hardness and wear resistance of connector connectors, hard gold-plating processes are generally used. Among them, gold-cobalt alloy and gold-nickel alloy are mostly used.

When the content of cobalt and nickel in the plating solution changes, the color of the gold coating will change, so this will lead to the same batch of products provided to customers. The case where the cash layers are not the same color.

Connector manufacturer Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics Co., Ltd. produces electronic connectors, automotive connectors, and other connector products, mainly for mobile phones, computers, smart toilets, sweepers, smart door locks, smart homes, medical electronics, new Enterprises such as energy vehicles provide high-quality connector products.

Connector Quality Assurance Technology

The quality assurance technology of connectors from design to production is the most basic technology indispensable to manufacturing companies.

The upstream raw materials of the connector industry are non-ferrous metals, rare and precious metals, plastic materials, and other auxiliary materials.

Among them, non-ferrous metals are mainly used to make connection terminals.
In order to avoid excessive obstruction or degradation of signals during transmission, terminals mostly use copper alloy plates such as brass, beryllium copper, and phosphor bronze as raw materials;
Rare and precious metals are used as electroplating Materials, the most commonly used are gold, palladium gold, nickel, silver, etc.;
Plastic raw materials are mainly PBT, PCT, LCP, PPS, NYLON resin, etc., which are used to make the shell part of the connection;
Auxiliary materials are mainly chemical reagents required for electroplating, Also include shell parts such as ceramics and glass.

The cost of raw materials accounts for about 30% of the cost of connector products. Among them, non-ferrous metals and rare and precious metals account for the largest proportion of the cost of connectors, followed by plastic raw materials and other auxiliary materials.

quality assurance technology

The main downstream application fields of connectors are automobiles, communications, consumer electronics, industrial and other fields, accounting for 71% of the total.

The top four application areas of connectors are automobiles (23%), communications (21%), consumer electronics (15%), and industry (12%), accounting for a total of 71% of the market share, followed by transportation (7%), military aviation (6%), and other fields such as medical, commercial and office equipment accounted for a total of 16%.

The basic criteria for evaluating the quality of connectors include mechanical performance, electrical performance, environmental performance, etc.

Mechanical properties mainly refer to insertion force and mechanical life. Insertion force is divided into insertion force and extraction force (extraction force is also called separation force), and the requirements of the two are different.

There are regulations on the maximum insertion force and the minimum separation force in the relevant standards, which shows that from the perspective of use, the insertion force should be appropriately small (thus there are structures with low insertion force LIF and no insertion force ZIF), and if the separation force is too high Small will affect the reliability of the contact.

Another important mechanical property is the mechanical life of the connector. Mechanical life is actually a durability index, which is based on one insertion and one extraction as a cycle, and whether the connector can normally complete its connection function (such as contact resistance value) after the specified insertion and extraction cycle is used as the basis for evaluation.

The insertion force and mechanical life of the connector are related to the contact structure (positive pressure), the coating quality of the contact part (sliding friction coefficient), and the dimensional accuracy (alignment) of the contact arrangement.

basic criteria for evaluating the quality

Electrical properties include stable technical resistance, insulation resistance, dielectric strength, etc. One is that it should have low and stable contact resistance.

The contact resistance of the connector ranges from a few milliohms to tens of milliohms;

second, it has a stable insulation resistance, which is an index to measure the insulation performance between the contacts of the electrical connector and between the contacts and the shell.

It ranges from hundreds of megohms to thousands of megohms;

The third is to have a certain electric strength, which is the ability to withstand the rated test voltage between the contacts of the connector or between the contacts and the shell;

In addition, there are other properties such as electromagnetic interference, characteristic impedance, transmission delay, etc.:

EMI leakage attenuation is to evaluate the electromagnetic interference shielding effect of the connector, and electromagnetic interference leakage attenuation is to evaluate the electromagnetic interference shielding effect of the connector, generally tested in the frequency range of 100MHz~10GHz.

For RF coaxial connectors, there are also electrical indicators such as characteristic impedance, insertion loss, reflection coefficient, and voltage standing wave ratio.

Due to the development of digital technology, in order to connect and transmit high-speed digital pulse signals, some new connectors such as high-speed signal connectors have appeared. Correspondingly, some new electrical indicators have also appeared, such as crosstalk, transmission delay, and time lag.

Electrical properties

Environmental performance includes mainly temperature resistance and moisture resistance.

First, it has temperature resistance. At present, the maximum working temperature of the connector is 200°C (except for a few high-temperature special connectors), and the minimum temperature is -65°C.

Since the current generates heat at the contact point when the connector is working, resulting in a temperature rise, it is generally believed that the operating temperature should be equal to the sum of the ambient temperature and the temperature rise of the contact. In some specifications, the maximum temperature rise allowed by the connector under the rated operating current is clearly specified.

The second is moisture resistance. The intrusion of moisture will affect the insulation performance of the connector and corrode the metal parts.

The above is an introduction to the quality assurance technology of connectors. Zhejiang Lianhe Electronics is a company specializing in the production of electronic connectors. Welcome new and old customers to come to buy